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 Cancer Prevention
Cancer prevention

Global cancer burden

  • 14.1 million new cancer cases in 2012, with 8.2 million total cancer deaths in the same year.
  • By 2030, global burden is expected to grow to 21.7 million new cancer cases and 13 million cancer deaths

According to estimates from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), there were 14.1 million new cancer cases in 2012 worldwide and the estimates for total cancer deaths in 2012 were 8.2 million. By 2030, the global burden is expected to grow to 21.7 million new cancer cases and 13 million cancer deaths.

Between 2007-2011, 103,570 new cancer cases were diagnosed in Malaysia and a total of 64,275 cancer deaths were reported by the National Cancer Registry during the same period.

National cancer burden

A total number of 103,507 new cancer cases were diagnosed in Malaysia during the period of 2007 to 2011. A total of 64,275 medically certified and non-medically certified cancer deaths were reported by the National Registration Department of the period 2007 to 2011.

Mechanism and development

Cancer development is caused by the continuous and unregulated proliferation of cells. Instead of responding appropriately to the signals that regulate normal cell behaviour, these cancer cells grow and divide out of control and invades normal tissues and organs, eventually spreading throughout the body.

Cancer staging: It is a way to describe the size of a cancer and how far it has grown and spread throughout the body.

Why is staging cancer important? – To determine the best treatment to treat the patient.

Stage 1: the cancer is relatively small and contained within the organ it started in

Stage 2: usually means that the tumour is larger than in stage 1, but the cancer has not started to spread into the surrounding tissues. Sometimes stage 2 means that cancer cells have spread into lymph nodes close to the tumour. This depends on the particular type of cancer.

Stage 3usually means the cancer is larger. It may have started to spread into surrounding tissues and there are cancer cells in the lymph nodes in the area

Stage 4: means the cancer has spread from where it started to another body organ. This also called secondary or metastatic cancer.

Risk factors

Modifiable Risk Factors

Obesity: “More than 1.9 billion adults, aged 18 and above are overweight, with 650 million being obese.” (World Health Organisation)
What you can do: Exercising regularly and maintaining a healthy die will help in reducing obesity.

Physical inactivity: “Approximately 3.2 million deaths occur each year due to insufficient physical activity.” (World Health Organisation) 
What you can do: Getting involved in more physical workouts and making it a point to walk or run for at least 30 minutes every day.

Moderate to heavy alcohol consumption: “In 2016, more than 3 million deaths are due to harmful use of alcohol, accounting for 1 in every 20 deaths.” (World Health Organisation)
What you can do: Reducing the consumption of alcohol as much as you can whether by setting a budget when you go out and drinking more water at social events to reduce the thirst for alcohol.

Long term smoking: “Tobacco kills more than 7 million people worldwide, where over 12.7% of those deaths are among non-smokers who were exposed to second hand smoke.” (World Health Organisation)
What you can do: While it’s no easy task, it is definitely not impossible. Meet a smoking cessation specialist if you want to stop smoking. Some of the things you can do is by reducing the number of cigarettes you smoke a day and resort to harmless nicotine patches or gums which will help reduce your nicotine cravings.

High consumption of processed meat: “Processed meat has been classified as Group 1, carcinogens to human due to sufficient evidence that the agent causes cancer.” (World Health Organisation)
What you can do: By making it a point to reduce the consumption of processed food and red meat and to always maintain a balanced diet.

Very low intake of whole-grain fibre, fruit, and vegetables:“Increased consumption of fruits and vegetables could potentially save 2.7 million lives worldwide every year.” (World Health Organisation)
What you can do: By making it a point to reduce the consumption of processed food and red meat and to always maintain a balanced diet.

Non-Modifiable Risk Factors

Personal or family history of colorectal cancer and/or polyps: “About 1 in 4 colorectal cancer patients have a family history of colorectal cancer, suggesting that it could be due to genetic and/or hereditary factor” (Colorectal Cancer Alliance)
What you can do: To get screened at least once every 10 years after the age of 50.

Personal history of chronic inflammatory bowel disease: “Patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease are said to have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer and extra-intestinal malignancies as a result of chronic intestinal inflammation” (Axelrad et al., 2016)
What you can do: To go for regular thorough health screenings and include plenty of anti-inflammatory foods in your diet.

Certain inherited genetic conditions: “Genetic specialists estimate that between 3-10% of a 100 cancer cases are due to inherited faulty genes” (Cancer Research UK)
What you can do: To go for regular screenings, at least once every 2 years.

10 Early Warning Signs

 

10-early-warning-signs

 

Sources:

 

To find out more on how we can help,
+63-2698 7300 | contact@cancer.org.my

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